Slave owners would hang their human property by their hands and set their hands or feet on fire as one form of punishment.

Some were burned alive and had their heads placed on pikes in the marketplace as a warning to other captives.

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They were shipped by the hundreds of thousands and included men, women, and even the youngest of children.

Whenever they rebelled or even disobeyed an order, they were punished in the harshest ways.

Self-published in 1993, Hoffman, a Holocaust denier, unsurprisingly blames the Atlantic slave trade on the Jews.

By blurring the lines between the different forms of unfree labour, these white supremacists seek to conceal the incontestable fact that these slavocracies were controlled by — and operated for the benefit of — white Europeans.

Limerick-based research librarian and historian Liam Hogan takes aim at this notion in a series of papers debunking what he calls “the Irish slaves myth.” There were no Irish slaves in the Americas, Hogan says.

People who claim there were are conflating indentured servitude with chattel slavery — two distinct forms of servitude with more differences between them than similarities: “White indentured servitude was so very different from black slavery as to be from another galaxy of human experience,” as Donald Harman Akenson put it in If the Irish Ran the World: Montserrat, 1630-1730. Chattel slavery was perpetual, a slave was only free once they they were no longer alive; it was hereditary, the children of slaves were the property of their owner; the status of chattel slave was designated by ‘race’, there was no escaping your bloodline; a chattel slave was treated like livestock, you could kill your slaves while applying “moderate correction” and the homicide law would not apply; the execution of ‘insolent’ slaves was encouraged in these slavocracies to deter insurrections and disobedience, and their owners were paid generous compensation for their ‘loss’; an indentured servant could appeal to a court of law if they were mistreated, a slave had no recourse for justice.Britain’s Oliver Cromwell furthered this practice of dehumanizing one’s next door neighbor.The Irish slave trade began when James VI sold 30,000 Irish prisoners as slaves to the New World.Cavanaugh called “Irish Slaves in the Caribbean.” It has gone by many names, but as of mid-2016, the most shared version of the Irish slave narrative was entitled “Irish: The Forgotten White Slaves,” and posted under the byline of a man named Ronald Dwyer.Regardless of who is or isn’t credited with writing it, nearly every iteration of the piece begins in exactly the same way: They came as slaves: human cargo transported on British ships bound for the Americas.Just looking for that speicial someone who'll make me happy again.